Drès, M., & Mallet, J. (2005). Molecular and behavioural evidence for gene flow between host races of the larch budmoth Zeiraphera diniana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Proceedings of the Royal Society B , Submitted.Abstract

Larch and pine associated populations of Zeiraphera diniana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) differin a number of heritable traits, but pheromone-mediated cross-attraction occurs betweenthem in the wild. Using a quartet mate choice design (one male and one female of each typeper cage) we estimate that, following cross-attraction by pheromones, the subsequentprobability of hybridization is approximately 28%. We also examined molecular data, andwere unable to distinguish between the races on the basis of 695bp of mitochondrial COI,tRNA-leucine, and COII gene sequence. Both results support earlier field studies suggestingthat larch- and pine-feeding populations are host races that hybridize at an appreciable levelin the wild. The shared mitochondrial haplotypes we observed are also consistent withongoing and successful gene flow between the two host races.

Whinnett, A., Brower, A. V. Z., Lee, M. - M., Willmott, K. R., & Mallet, J. (2005). Phylogenetic utility of tektin, a novel region for inferring systematic relationships among Lepidoptera. Annals of the Entomological Society of America , 98, 873-886.Abstract

Rapidly evolving nuclear coding sequences are highly desirable for phylogeneticstudies of closely related species. Here, we investigated an 807-bp region, homologous to the testisspeciÞcTektin gene from Bombyx mori (L.), in 34 nymphalid butterßy taxa in the subfamiliesIthomiinae, Danainae, and Heliconiinae. Within Ithomiinae, relationships inferred from Tektin sequencedata were remarkably similar to those in trees based on combined morphological andecological data. Partitioned Bremer analysis, with mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and II, andnuclear wingless and elongation factor 1- sequences, revealed Tektin to have the greatest utility forinferring relationships at the genus, tribe, and subfamily levels across the studied taxa.Wethink Tektinwill provide a useful source of molecular characters for inference of relationships among otherbutterßies, and perhaps among other insect taxa.

Mallet, J., Isaac, N., & Mace, G. (2005). Response to Harris and Froufe, and Knapp : Taxonomic inflation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution , 20, 8-9. REPRINT
Mallet, J. (2005). Speciation in the 21st Century. Review of "Speciation", by Jerry A. Coyne & H. Allen Orr. Heredity , 95, 105-109. REPRINT
Whinnett, A., Zimmermann, M., Willmott, K. R., Herrera, N., Mallarino, R., Simpson, F., Joron, M., et al. (2005). Strikingly variable divergence times inferred across an Amazonian butterfly 'suture zone'. Proceedings of the Royal Society B , 272, 2525-2533.Abstract

'Suture zones' are areas where hybrid and contact zones of multiple taxa are clustered. Such zones have been regarded as strong evidence for allopatric divergence by proponents of the Pleistocene forest refugia theory, a vicariance hypothesis frequently used to explain diversification in the Amazon basin. A central prediction of the refugia and other vicariance theories is that the taxa should have a common history so that divergence times should be coincident among taxa. A suture zone for Ithomiinae butterflies near Tarapoto, NE Peru, was therefore studied to examine divergence times of taxa in contact across the zone. We sequenced 1619bp of the mitochondrial COI/COII region in 172 individuals of 31 species from across the suture zone. Inferred divergence times differed remarkably, with divergence between some pairs of widespread species (each of which may have two or more subspecies interacting in the zone, as in the genus Melinaea) being considerably less than that between hybridizing subspecies in other genera (for instance in Oleria). Our data therefore strongly refute a simple hypothesis of simultaneous vicariance and suggest that ongoing parapatric or other modes of differentiation in continuous forest may be important in driving diversification in Amazonia.